Part Time Workers

Are There Unintended Consequences Arising from New Legislation to Protect Casual Workers?

zero hours contracts

The new banded hours legislation which came into effect on 4th March 2019, it is argued, appears to be having unforeseen, unintended consequences. Dr. Juliet McMahon, for example, argues in the Irish Times this week that

“This advance may turn out to be a false dawn. Previous legislation proved toothless for zero-hours workers and this new Act looks set to change precisely nothing.”

The avowed purpose of the Employment (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2018 was to provide new protections for a range of employees who were working under so called ‘casual hours’ contracts.

This included employees who were engaged in bogus self-employment, workers with zero hours contracts; employees engaged in casual so called ‘precarious work’. (Read about the main provisions of this legislation here).

Zero hours contracts

Zero hours contracts were provided for in section 18 Organisation of Working Time act 1997 (read about zero hours contracts here).

A zero hours contract was one which obliged the employee to make himself available for work for a certain number of hours per week or as and when the employer required him. If the employer did not require him to work at all in a specific week then the employee was entitled to be paid for 25% of the hours they were contracted to do, or 15 hours pay-whichever was the lesser.

Note, however, that the employee was obliged to make him/herself available for work.

The new legislation, the Employment (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2018, attempted to improve the employee’s lot by providing the rate of compensation, in the event the employer did not require the employee to work in a particular week was to be paid at a rate of 3 times the relevant minimum wage.

‘If and when’ versus ‘as and when’

Drawing a distinction between an ‘as and when’ contract and an ‘if and when’ contract may appear to be dancing on the head of a legal pin. But there is a vital distinction, one I have written about before in this blog post about zero hours contracts and ‘if and when’ contracts.

The typical ‘if and when’ contract has a clause in it which states that hours may be offered to the employee, but he/she does not have to accept them. Let me repeat that: the worker does not have to accept them.

This means there is no ‘mutuality of obligation’ between the parties and without mutuality of obligation there is no employer/employee relationship.

A typical provision will be “You have the right to refuse or accept hours of work offered to you.” If the worker has the right to refuse hours the relationship of master/servant, employer/employee does not exist.

And the consequences flowing from that are profound.

For if the worker is not an employee, she does not enjoy the benefit of any legislation which protects employees. Not the new legislation, not the old legislation. Not any.

None. No protection because the worker is self-employed.

Unintended consequences of new legislation

It has been suggested by Dr. MacMahon and Tony Dundon, professor of HRM and employment relations, both at the Department of Work and Employment Studies, Kemmy Business School, University of Limerick that one of the unintended consequences of the new legislation, the Employment (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2018, is the provision of an incentive for the employer to award ‘if and when’ contracts to certain casual workers to ensure they are not categorised as employees and enjoy the benefits of the legislation which protects employees.

However, this would only apply to new contracts as there is no reason why an employee with a contract of employment would give up his contractual entitlement to hours of work for an ‘if and when’ contract which would remove all employment law legislative protection.

Moreover, if I was an employer with a number of employees and I was seeking to rely on a clause in a contract-such as ‘you do not have to take the hours offered to you’-but all the surrounding circumstances and course of conduct pointed to a relationship of ‘employer/employee’ I would have a fear about a WRC officer finding the worker was an employee.

And if that occurred it would have significant consequences for my business as other workers would inevitably follow up with claims of being employees, in fact.


I believe it is premature and misconceived to argue that “Previous legislation proved toothless for zero-hours workers and this new Act looks set to change precisely nothing.”

There are significant new protections for employees arising from the new legislation, especially in relation to banded hours contracts.

The argument that a tsunami of new employment contracts will be provided by employers with unfavourable ‘non mutuality of obligation’ clauses, thereby putting the worker outside the legislation, is unlikely to hold up if employers are unable to get workers to agree to such unfavourable clauses. Moreover, existing employees are hardly going to give up what they have for contracts with clauses designed to put them outside the protection of the employment legislation net.  

The Employment Contract

New Employment Law Provisions in 2019: Zero Hours Contracts, Banded Hours Contracts, Criminal Penalties for Employers

zero hours contracts

The Employment (Miscellaneous Provisions) Bill, 2017, when passed into law in Ireland-expected to commence in March 2019-will bring about some significant changes for Irish employers and employees. In fact, it makes certain breaches of the act a criminal offence: if the employer incorrectly designates an employee as ‘self-employed’, for example.

(This bill became law on 4th March, 2019: Employment (Miscellaneous Provisions) act 2018.)

Purpose of the bill

The main thrust of this new law is to deal with ‘precarious work’, zero hours contracts, and uncertain working conditions for employees in industries which would have relied on a great deal of flexibility in the employment contract; service industries such as retail, hospitality, and tourism for example.

Most employers in these industries have made ample use of flexible working arrangements to meet the needs of their business, especially long working hours and seasonable peaks and troughs in trade and the demand for staff.

Main elements

The significant elements of this bill are

  1. The employer must give a written statement of 5 core terms of employment within 5 days of starting employment.

    These 5 terms are
    a) the full name of employer and employee
    b) the address of the employer
    c) the expected duration of the employment contract
    d) the method of calculating or rate of pay
    e) the expected normal working day and week

    Failure to provide this statement can lead to the criminal prosecution of the employer.

  2. Banded hours provisions

    The employee has a statutory entitlement to a banded hours contract where their contractual working hours over the previous 12 months do not reflect their actual working hours. If the employee requests such a contract he must be given the banded hours contract unless

    i) the employee’s claim is not supported by evidence
    ii) there have been significant adverse changes to the employer’s business in the previous 12 months
    iii) the hours worked in the previous 12 months were brought about by a temporary situation which no longer exists

    There are 8 different bands as follows:
    Band              From                     To
    A                     3 hours                 6 hours
    B                     6 hours                 11 hours
    C                     11 hours              16 hours
    D                     16 hours              21 hours
    E                      21 hours              26 hours
    F                      26 hours              31 hours
    G                     31 hours              36 hours
    H                     36 hours and over           

    Once an employee is placed on a particular band she is entitled to work an average of those hours for the following 12 months.

  3. Designation of employees

    An employer can be held criminally liable if she incorrectly designates and employee as ‘self employed’. Imprisonment of up to 12 months and fines of up to €5,000 are the maximum penalties.
    The employer has a defence, however, if he can show that he exercised due diligence and took all reasonable precautions when arriving at the designation.
  4. Prohibition of zero hours contracts

    Zero hours contracts will be prohibited unless used in specific exceptional circumstances of genuine casual employment and where they are essential for the needs of the business in the short term or in emergency situations.

  5. Continuity of employment

    Employees who are given a series of fixed term contracts will be deemed as being on layoff and will accumulate ‘continuous service’ for the purpose of protections from various employment law statutes.

  6. New minimum payment

    There will be a new minimum payment entitlement for employees who are not called into work on any given week. The employee will be entitled 25% of their weekly contracted hours.

  7. Strong penalties for employers

    The bill provides strong sanctions against employers for penalising employees who seek to enforce their rights under this bill and also strong penalties for not implementing the provisions of this bill.

New minimum wage rates from 4th March, 2019

Rates on or after 4 March 2019

Min hourly rate% of min wage
Minimum wage9.80100
Aged under 186.8670
Aged 187.8480
Aged 198.8290

Since 4 March 2019 trainee rates are abolished.

You can learn more about the Employment (Miscellaneous Provisions) Bill 2017 here.

Here is the Employment (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 2018.

The Employment Contract

Zero Hours and If and When Employment Contracts-the Legal Issues

zero hours contracts

Zero hours contracts.

If and When contracts.

What are they?

Why do they provoke such controversy among trade unions?

Are they useful for employers?

Why did a junior minister in the last government commission a report on them?

What was the surprise finding?

Let’s take a look.

What is a Zero Hours Contract?

In Ireland the only piece of legislation which refers to “zero hours working practices” is section 18 of the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997.

Section 18 states:

18.—(1) This section applies to an employee whose contract of employment operates to require the employee to make himself or herself available to work for the employer in a week—
(a) a certain number of hours (“the contract hours”), or
(b) as and when the employer requires him or her to do so, or
(c) both a certain number of hours and otherwise as and when the employer requires him or her to do so,
and the said requirement is not one that is held to arise by virtue only of the fact, if such be the case, of the employer having engaged the employee to do work of a casual nature for him or her on occasions prior to the said week (whether or not the number of those occasions or the circumstances otherwise touching the said engagement of the employee are such as to give rise to a reasonable expectation on his or her part that he or she would be required by the employer to do work for the employer in the said week).
(2) If an employer does not require an employee to whom this section applies to work for the employer in a week referred to in subsection (1)
(a) in a case falling within paragraph (a) of that subsection, at least 25 per cent. of the contract hours, or
(b) in a case falling within paragraph (b) or (c) of that subsection where work of the type which the employee is required to make himself or herself available to do has been done for the employer in that week, at least 25 per cent. of the hours for which such work has been done in that week,
then the employee shall, subject to the provisions of this section, be entitled—
(i) in case the employee has not been required to work for the employer at all in that week, to be paid by the employer the pay he or she would have received if he or she had worked for the employer in that week whichever of the following is less, namely—
(I) the percentage of hours referred to in paragraph (a) or (b), as the case may be, or
(II) 15 hours,
(ii) in case the employee has been required to work for the employer in that week less than the percentage of hours referred to in paragraph (a) or (b), as the case may be (and that percentage of hours is less than 15 hours), to have his or her pay for that week calculated on the basis that he or she worked for the employer in that week the percentage of hours referred to in paragraph (a) or (b), as the case may be.
(3) Subsection (2) shall not apply—
(a) if the fact that the employee concerned was not required to work in the week in question the percentage of hours referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of that subsection, as the case may be—
(i) constituted a lay-off or a case of the employee being kept on short-time for that week, or
(ii) was due to exceptional circumstances or an emergency (including an accident or the imminent risk of an accident), the consequences of which could not have been avoided despite the exercise of all due care, or otherwise to the occurrence of unusual and unforeseeable circumstances beyond the employer’s control,
(b) if the employee concerned would not have been available, due to illness or for any other reason, to work for the employer in that week the said percentage of hours.
(4) The reference in subsection (2) (b) to the hours for which work of the type referred to in that provision has been done in the week concerned shall be construed as a reference to the number of hours of such work done in that week by another employee of the employer concerned or, in case that employer has required 2 or more employees to do such work for him or her in that week and the number of hours of such work done by each of them in that week is not identical, whichever number of hours of such work done by one of those employees in that week is the greatest.
(5) References in this section to an employee being required to make himself or herself available to do work for the employer shall not be construed as including references to the employee being required to be on call, that is to say to make himself or herself available to deal with any emergencies or other events or occurrences which may or may not occur.
(6) Nothing in this section shall affect the operation of a contract of employment that entitles the employee to be paid wages by the employer by reason, alone, of the employee making himself or her self available to do, at the times and place concerned, the work concerned.

You will see from section 18 that an employee with a zero hours contract, as defined above, is entitled to compensation where the employee is required to be available to work (this is crucial) and the employer does not give him/her hours.

If this occurs, the employee is entitled to be paid for 25% of the hours they were required to be available or 15 hours pay, whichever is the lesser.

However, the critical aspect of this is that the employee must have been obliged to make themselves available to the employer, that is, they had no choice about working or not.

An employee who does come under the protection of section 18 is entitled to the full range of employment law protections in Ireland, for example, holiday pay, statutory leave etc.

What is an If and When Contract?

The key distinction between an If and When Contract and a Zero Hours contract is that there is no mutuality of obligation under an If and When contract.

This means that there is no obligation on the employer to offer work to the employee and, if he does, there is no obligation on the employee to accept. The fly in the ointment in this scenario, though, is that if there is no mutuality of obligation between employer and employee there is no contract of service.

And this means that the worker is not, in the eyes of the law, an employee and does not have the protection of employment law, including section 18 of the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997 referred to above, or legislation deal with with holidays, working time, unfair dismissal, redundancy, notice periods, etc.

The reason for this is simply because the employer does not “require” the employee to be available (This section applies to an employee whose contract of employment operates to require the employee to make himself or herself available to work for the employer in a week-Section 18).

Mutuality of Obligation

Courts have held that where there is no mutuality of obligation no contract of service can exist.

And a contract of service is an employment contract.

Even if there is mutuality of obligation the relationship may not be one of employment, and other factors will be looked at by Courts.

But mutuality of obligation is an essential starting point without which the employer/employee relationship cannot exist. (Read the other factors which are considered in deciding whether the relationship is a contract of employment or independent contractor situation).

It’s worth noting, also, that a contract containing a statement that there is no mutuality of obligation between the parties will not necessarily be determinative of the issues if the reality of the situation is different and the employee is, in fact, obliged to be available.

The Surprising Finding

The surprising finding in the study carried out the University of Limerick into the prevalence of zero hours contracts, as defined in the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997, despite political and media chatter, was that such contracts are rare.

Far more prevalent are If and When contracts and banded hours contracts in major retailers.

And, ironically, If and When contracts are far less attractive propositions than zero hours contracts as zero hours contracts have some statutory protection for the employee, while If and When contracts do not.

Read our disclaimer.

Changes in 2019

The law in the area of casual work changed in March 2019, you can learn more about banded hours contracts, zero hours contracts, bogus self employment, and so forth here.

Are you an employer?

Need a quote for a contract of employment? Contact me.

We can supply you with

  1. a template contract which you will complete yourself for each employee. This would involve things like commencement date, job description/role, rate of pay, and any other specific details for the individual employee and/or
  2. individual contracts for each employee-we get all the necessary details from you for each employee and draft the contracts for you.
Working Time/Rest Periods

Working Time and Minimum Rest Periods in Irish Employment-What You Need to Know


Rest periods in work.

Do they cause problems for you?

Are you an employer? Employee?

Working time, rest periods, public holidays,  and annual leave are all dealt with in Irish law in the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997.

And up to 2 years remuneration can be awarded in compensation to an employee for breaches of the Act.

In fact the hours of work, holidays, some statutory leave entitlements, days off, breaks, and so on are also determined by the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997.

For employers it is important to note that working time and time off/annual leave should be viewed as health and safety issues for employees also.

The definition of “working time” in the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997 is an important one:

working time” means any time that the employee is—
(a) at his or her place of work or at his or her employer’s disposal, and
(b) carrying on or performing the activities or duties of his or her work,
and “work” shall be construed accordingly.

Section 2 defines “working time” and a “rest period”:

rest period” means any time that is not working time;

Application and non-application

The Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997 does not apply to members of the Defence Forces and an Garda Siochana.

Section 3 of the Act also states that it shall not apply to people working in sea fishing or a doctor in training or workers covered by a collective agreement or those working in exceptional circumstances or an emergency or a person who is employed by a relative and is a member of that relative’s household or a person whose working hours are determined by him/herself.

Section 4 provides exemptions for other groups of employees including those covered by regulations made by the Minister for Enterprise and Employment including people working in the transport industry.

Section 6 of the Act  allows an employer to give compensatory “equivalent” rest periods where an employee is not entitled to a rest period due to the operation of sections 4 or 5.


S.I. No. 21/1998 – Organisation of Working Time (General Exemptions) Regulations, 1998 provides for exemptions for certain workers from the operation of sections 11, 12, 13 and 16 of the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997.

Here is the list set out in the statutory instrument:


1. An activity in which the employee is regularly required by the employer to travel distances of significant length, either from his or her home to the workplace or from one workplace to another workplace.

2. An activity of a security or surveillance nature the purpose of which is to protect persons or property and which requires the continuous presence of the employee at a particular place or places, and, in particular, the activities of a security guard, caretaker or security firm.

3. An activity falling within a sector of the economy or in the public service—

(a) in which it is foreseeable that the rate at which production or the provision of services, as the case may be, takes place will vary significantly from time to time,


(b) the nature of which is such that employees are directly involved in ensuring the continuity of production or the provision of services, as the case may be,

and, in particular, any of the following activites—

(i) the provision of services relating to the reception, treatment or care of persons in a residential institution, hospital or similar establishment,

(ii) the provision of services at a harbour or airport,

(iii) production in the press, radio, television, cinematographic, postal or telecommunications industries,

(iv) the provision of ambulance, fire and civil protection services,

(v) the production, transmission or distribution of gas, water or electricity,

(vi) the collection of household refuse or the operation of an incineration plant,

(vii) any industrial activity in which work cannot, by reason of considerations of a technical nature, be interrupted,

(viii) research and development,

(ix) agriculture,

(x) tourism.

On call or on standby?

If you are on call or standby the prime determining factor as to whether this is “working time” or not will be the requirement to be at a particular place or not-if a physical presence is required it is considered working time; if not, it is not considered working time, even though you may, like a doctor, be on call.

The Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997 does not apply to Gardai and Defence Forces members and certain sections of the Act do not apply to other groups of employees (for example people involved in the transportation of goods or people, people involved in sea fishing, employees covered by collective agreements, doctors in training etc.)


There are special regulations for fishermen, S.I. No. 709/2003 – European Communities (Workers on Board Sea-Going Fishing Vessels) (Organisation of Working Time) Regulations 2003.

Minimum Rest Periods

Section 11 of the Act stipulates that an employee is entitled to a “rest period of not less than 11 consecutive hours in each period of 24 hours”; this is the daily rest period.

Section 12 states that an employee is entitled to a rest period of at least 15 minutes after working for 4.5 hours and a break of at least 30 minutes after working for 6 hours. Note: a break at the end of the working day is not acceptable and does not comply with the Act.

This 15 minute break can be included in the 30 minute break but would obviously have to start no later than 4 hours and 30 minutes after the commencement of work.

Section 13 deals with weekly rest periods and gives an entitlement to at least 24 consecutive hours of a break in each period of seven days, or at the employer’s discretion two rest periods each of which must be for at least 24 consecutive hours during a second seven days period. This rest period must be preceded by a section 11 daily rest period (see above).

Unless the employment contract provides otherwise, the 24 hours rest period “shall be a Sunday or, if the rest period is of more than 24 hours duration, shall include a Sunday”.

Compensatory Rest Periods

There are exemptions provided for certain workplaces and industries, In particular circumstances the employer can give compensatory rest periods where it is not possible for the employee to get his/her statutory entitlement in the normal course of events.

Section 6 of the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997 is the relevant section.

The Labour Relations Commission prepared a Code of Practice, pursuant to section 6 of the act, about compensatory rest periods which you can access here.

Retail/Shop Workers

There are special rules about breaks for  retail workers.The relevant statutory instrument is 57/1998 – Organisation of Working Time (Breaks At Work For Shop Employees) Regulations, 1998.

These regulations cover any retail trade or business, but does not include any premises uses as a hotel or the preparation of food including catering operations or licensed premises.

For any shop employee whose hours of work include the hours from 11.30 a.m. to 2.30 p.m. and who works more than six hours, the minimum duration of the break shall be one hour. The one hour break should take place between the hours mentioned and cannot be granted at the end of the working day.

These regulations covers workers in any retail trade or business or shop or wholesale outlet. and includes a barber or hairdressers.

Sunday Work

Section 14 provides for compensation for employees who are required to work on a Sunday, where this “has not otherwise been taken account of” in deciding pay.

Employees can be compensated by an allowance or pay increase or paid time off or a combination of these measures.

Employees can, in certain circumstances,  rely on agreements governing “comparable employees” with a view to establishing appropriate levels of compensation.

Weekly working hours

Section 15 deals with weekly working hours and states that an employee cannot work in excess of an average of 48 hours in a week-the average is taken over a two to twelve month period, depending on the industry and whether you are a night worker or not.

This case-ANDRZEI GERA T/A FAMILY BAKERY SAMO ZDROWIE and JUSTYNA MALECKA-saw two workers each being awarded €10,000 in compensation for breach of the weekly working hours law. You can read the full decisions here and here.

The Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997 also contains provisions covering night workers (section 16 offers extra protection), section 17 covers circumstances where an employee may not have a regular starting and/or finishing time that he/she must be told at least 24 hours in advance of the relevant starting and finishing time (the same applies to overtime required to be worked) and zero hours contracts are covered in section 18.

Certain sectors of activity are exempted from the rest provisions of the Organisation of Working Time Act 1997, for example some transport activities. These exemptions are normally set out in a statutory instrument so legal advices is recommended to check whether your industry is affected by an exemption.

Night Workers

Section 16 of the Act gives additional protection to night workers. Employers cannot expect or oblige night workers to work over 8 hours in a 24 hour period; a night worker is a worker who works at least 3 hours post-midnight as night work is considered to be from midnight to 7 am.

Section 17 of the Act provides that where an employee does not have “normal or regular starting and finishing times of work” the employer must give at least 24 hours notice of the relevant starting and finishing times.

The employee is entitled to the same notice re overtime/additional hours that the employer requires the employee to work.

Zero hours contracts

There has been increasing controversy about the use of zero hour contracts and there are reviews currently (2014) being carried out in Ireland and the UK by Ged Nash and Ed Miliband respectively.

These contracts are contracts of employment with a difference-they do not have a specified hours of work but the employee must be available for work for a certain number of hours in a week or when required, or a combination of both.

The use of zero hours contracts in the UK has soared in the last few years and, unlike in Ireland, there is no compensation for workers who are not called in to work.

The Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997 provides for zero hours contracts in section 18. Unlike in the UK, there is a certain degree of protection for the worker in Ireland.

In the UK if you are not called in to work in any week, you don’t get paid.

In Ireland, there is some compensation for workers who work less than 25% of their contracted hours in a week. If the employee got no work at all, he is entitled to 25% of the possible available hours or 15 hours, whichever is the smaller.

If the employee got some hours, they should be compensated to bring them up to 25% of the possible available hours.

Here’s an example:  say Sebastian is contracted to be available for 20 hours per week but got no work in a given week. Then Sebastian is entitled to be compensated with 25% of the 20 hours, that is 5 hours, or for 15 hours, whichever is less.

5 hours is clearly the smaller so Sebastian is entitled to be paid for 5 hours.

If Sebastian got 3 hours work, then he would be entitled to be compensated by an extra 2 hours to bring him up to 25% of the contracted hours.

Organisation of Working Time Act 1997 and Employers Records

Section 25 of the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997 obliges the employer to keep certain records:

25.—(1) An employer shall keep, at the premises or place where his or her employee works or, if the employee works at two or more premises or places, the premises or place from which the activities that the employee is employed to carry on are principally directed or controlled, such records, in such form, if any, as may be prescribed, as will show whether the provisions of this Act are being complied with in relation to the employee and those records shall be retained by the employer for at least 3 years from the date of their making.
(2) The Minister may by regulations exempt from the application of subsection (1) any specified class or classes of employer and regulations under this subsection may provide that any such exemption shall not have effect save to the extent that specified conditions are complied with.
(3) An employer who, without reasonable cause, fails to comply with subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence.
(4) Without prejudice to subsection (3), where an employer fails to keep records under subsection (1) in respect of his or her compliance with a particular provision of this Act in relation to an employee, the onus of proving, in proceedings before a rights commissioner or the Labour Court, that the said provision was complied with in relation to the employee shall lie on the employer.


S.I. No. 473/2001 – Organisation of Working Time (Records) (Prescribed Form and Exemptions) Regulations, 2001 provides a form which employers can use to record hours worked on a daily and weekly basis, a record of leave granted to each employee and a weekly record of the starting and finishing times of employees.

We have created a spreadsheet which allows you to maintain these records in accordance with the legislation and regulations.

You can download it here.

Enforcement Procedures and Remedies

Disputes are dealt with by a Rights Commissioner in the first instance with appeals to the Employment Appeals tribunal once referred within 6 months of the alleged breach. The Rights Commissioner has a number of options open to him/her including ordering the employer to pay up to two years remuneration as compensation.

Section 27 of the Organisation of Working Time Act, 1997 provides that up to 2 years remuneration can be awarded to the employee in compensation by the Rights Commissioner or the Labour Court on appeal:

(3) A decision of a rights commissioner under subsection (2) shall do one or more of the following:
(a) declare that the complaint was or, as the case may be, was not well founded,
(b) require the employer to comply with the relevant provision,
(c) require the employer to pay to the employee compensation of such amount (if any) as is just and equitable having regard to all the circumstances, but not exceeding 2 years remuneration in respect of the employee’s employment, and the references in the foregoing paragraphs to an employer shall be construed, in a case where ownership of the business of the employer changes after the contravention to which the complaint relates occurred, as references to the person who, by virtue of the change, becomes entitled to such ownership.

We always recommend, regardless of whether you are an employer or employee, that you consult with a legal professional for advice as the consequences of an error in this area can be very costly.

The Organisation of Working time act, 1997 also deals with annual leave/holidays from work. Click on the link to learn more.