New Pay Rates and Conditions of Employment for Plumbers and Pipefitters

plumber and pipefitter SEO

Are you a plumber or pipefitter?

If you are there is a new sectoral employment order which sets minimum pay rates and other conditions of employment for you.

The sectoral employment order (SEO) came into force on 6th March, 2018 and covers the following employees:

Qualified Plumbers and Registered Apprentice Plumbers (Craftsperson) and Qualified Pipefitters and Registered Apprentice Pipefitters (Craftsperson) working in the Sector.
For the avoidance of doubt qualified plumbers and pipefitters who have acquired additional or advanced welding qualifications and who are required to function as welders on a day to day basis within the sector come within the scope of this Order.

Rates of Pay (hourly)

Category 1 €22.73
Category 2 €23.33
Category 3 €23.60

Apprentices

Apprentice Year 1 33.3% of Category 1 hourly rate of pay

Apprentice Year 2 50% of Category 1 hourly rate of pay

Apprentice Year 3 75% of Category 1 hourly rate of pay

Apprentice Year 4 90% of Category 1 hourly rate of pay

The SEO also defines the normal working week, normal daily working hours, and unsocial hours payments.

  • Hours worked between normal finishing time and Midnight Monday to Friday inclusive-time plus a half
  • Hours worked between Midnight and normal starting time Monday to Friday-Double time
  • First four hours worked after 7 am on Saturday-Time plus a half
  • All other hours worked on Saturday-Double time
  • All hours worked on Sunday-Double time
  • All hours worked on Public Holidays-Double time plus an additional day’s leave

The SEO also deals with pensions, pension contributions, a sick pay scheme and how disputes are to be resolved.

Legally Binding

This SEO is legally binding in the sector, regardless of whether the employer has a unionised workforce or not, as these are statutory minimum rates and conditions in the sector. These SEOs replace the old Registered Employment Agreements which were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 2013.

Here is a link to the full order: SECTORAL EMPLOYMENT ORDER (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BUILDING SERVICES CONTRACTING SECTOR) 2018

Appeals to the Labour Court-What You Should Know

Labour Court Appeals

If you are not satisfied with a decision in the Workplace Relations Commission you may appeal the decision to the Labour Court.

The Labour Court is quasi-judicial and an adversarial forum (Donnelly v Timber Factors Ltd [1991] 1 IR 553). However, administrative tribunals such as the Labour Court are not bound as strictly as the criminal or civil courts in relation to the rules of evidence, including the rule against hearsay.

Section 44, Workplace Relations Act 2015 provides for an Appeal to Labour Court from decision of adjudication officer. The Labour Court can also deal with an appeal from an employer arising from a compliance notice he has received pursuant to section 28, Workplace Relations Act, 2015.

Each case is dealt with by a Division of the Labour Court; a Division comprises a Chairman, an Employer Member, and an Employee Member.

The time limit for an appeal from a decision of an Adjudication Officer is 42 days from the date of the decision. The day of the decision is the first day of the 42 days and time can only be extended in ‘exceptional circumstances’.

Labour Court business, unlike WRC hearings, is conducted in public and the Labour Court rules are set out in four parts as follows:

  1. Procedure for appeals of adjudication officer in relation to employment equality and unfair dismissal
  2. Procedure for appeals of Compliance notices served on employers
  3. Procedure for appeals in respect of other employment enactments
  4. The Procedure to be followed at the hearing itself.

The Labour Court rules can be found here.

Appeals re unfair dismissal and employment equality acts

The appeal is commenced by using a standard form and a copy of the Adjudication Officer decision. Three weeks later you must submit your written submission which is then sent to the Respondent.

Respondent then has three weeks to file a replying submission.

Extending time- ‘exceptional circumstances’

The time of 42 days allowed for the appeal can only be extended in exceptional circumstances. Useful cases in relation to what is accepted as exceptional circumstances include:

  • SAP Landscapes Ltd v Gutkin & O’Neill UDD 6 & 7/2016
  • Kildare and Wicklow Education and Training Board v Igoe PWD 26, 27 & 28/2016
  • Galway & Roscommon Education Training Board v Kenny UDD 24/2016
  • HSE West v Barry UDD 32/2016

Pre-Hearing Witness Statements

Both parties are required to send in pre hearing witness statements at least 7 days in advance of the hearing. These statements should state

  • The name of the witness
  • A summary of the witness’s evidence
  • Copy documents which will be relied upon at the hearing

A De Novo Appeal

The appeal in the Labour Court is de novo; this means the partries start from scratch and the decision of the adjudication officer of the WRC is completely ignored and has no influence on the decision of the Labour Court.

Fitzgibbon v Law Society [2014] IESC 48 makes this clear, and the appeal body is required come to its own conclusions on the evidence available to it.

However, the party appealing must canvas the same claim, not an entirely new one. (See Dawn Country Meats Ltd v Hill DWT 141/2012).

Written submissions

The parties are expected, in their written submissions, set out

  • The facts which are agreed and in issue
  • The legal basis for the submission
  • The remedy sought (in the case of the complainant)
  • Transcript of the decisions/judgments relied upon

In essence, the parties are to set out their case in full and not focus on the adjudication officer’s decision or how he/she conducted the WRC hearing.

The hearing commences with the party bearing the burden of proof reading his submission; the respondent reads his submission and the parties are invited to comment on the other’s submission.

Eacn party then examinses and cross-examines each side’s witnesses and the Court may have questions for the witnesses.

Parties can represent themselves or engage the services of a solicitor/barrister/HR representative, or whoever he chooses.

Adjournments and witness summonses

A party can seek an adjournment in writing in advance of the hearing, after seeking the consent of the other side first.

The Labour Court has the power, pursuant to section 21, Industrial Relations Act, 1946 to summons witnesses if it so decides.

Appeals

A party can appeal a determination of the Labour Court to the High Court on a point of law only.

(The above is a summary of what I learned from a paper delivered by Alan Haugh BL, Deputy Chairman of the Labour Court, at a Law Society CPD Masterclass on 9th March, 2018).

Warning: When Legal Argument and Syllogistic Reasoning is Not Enough to Win Your WRC Case

legal reasoning

Let’s call a spade a spade.

If you are at a WRC hearing and you have a well constructed legal argument prepared, based on syllogistic reasoning, you can be easily set back on your butt.

First, let me explain what syllogistic reasoning is.

Syllogistic reasoning involves a logical argument based on deductive reasoning. It involves

  1. A major premise or proposition
  2. A minor premise or proposition
  3. A conclusion.

Let me give you an example.

  1. All men will die.
  2. Mick is a man.
  3. Mick will die.

In this example you can reasonably conclude from the major and minor premise that Mick will die one day.

The major premise is generally the rule, the minor premise is the facts of this particular case. And then you have reasonable, logical conclusion based on applying the rule to the facts.

This is how many legal arguments will be constructed. Let’s take a real world example in the area of employment law.

Let’s accept the major premise that to terminate someone’s employment without any reason or notice after they have 12 months service is unlawful because it constitutes an unfair dismissal.

And let’s say the facts of a case are that this is precisely what happened Maureen-she was fired one Monday morning by her boss, Terry, without any explanation and told to pack her things-then you can reasonably conclude that Maureen has an extremely strong case on the grounds of unfair dismissal.

Let’s assume you are Maureen and you go along to the WRC hearing and represent yourself in your unfair dismissal claim. Then a strange thing happens.

Terry starts giving evidence and explaining what happened and breaks down uncontrollably. Terry tells how his wife was diagnosed with cancer two weeks before the incident, he wasn’t himself, did not know what came over him, the Revenue Commissioners carried out a raid on his garage on foot of a malicious complaint from a former disgruntled employee, and his dog died.

The WRC adjudicator just happens to be a middle aged man around the same age as Terry and his wife, coincidentally, was diagnosed with cancer 9 months before. The adjudicator is visibly shaken by Terry’s story and has a great degree of sympathy for him.

In fact, he adjourns the hearing for 15 minutes to gather his thoughts, and let Terry compose himself. When the hearing resumes the adjudicator turns to you and suggests that settling the case might be in your best interest.

What would you do?

**********************************************************

This story has exaggerated facts to illustrate a point. No matter how strong you think your legal argument is a strong emotional story can be hard to overcome, especially if two things are present:

  1. If the adjudicator has a stronger feeling of empathy with one of the parties
  2. There is a conflict of evidence between the parties.

We know, for example, that when an adjudicator at the WRC or a Judge in court is faced with a conflict of evidence he/she will have to choose which version of events he/she prefers.

And that may well turn the case in favour of one party or the other. The Adjudicator decision may well contain a line, “there was a conflict of evidence between the parties and I preferred the evidence of xxxx”.

Therefore no matter how strong you feel your case is and no matter how well you have constructed your legal arguments you may run into a situation where the outcome is far more unpredictable than you expected.

Throw in the fact that each WRC adjudicator is entitled to conduct the hearing however he chooses and it can be a frustrating and unpredictable process. For example, I have been involved in hearings where cross examination of the main witness was not permitted; in other cases it was actively encouraged.

Sometimes, no matter how strong your case, the smart thing might be to retreat from an “all duck and no dinner” approach, and settle it. Especially when you feel that the other party’s version of events is-rightly or wrongly-more likely to be accepted by the adjudicator.

Conclusion

Much of the skill and wisdom involved in any case is required for this type of decision, not necessarily or solely to prosecute or defend the case based on the legal reasoning.

The Essential Procedures for Pursuing Your Claim at the WRC (Workplace Relations Commission)

Since the introduction of the Workplace Relations Act, 2015 a new system of adjudicating employment complaints and disputes was introduced. The new system is a simpler one and did away with the Rights Commissioner and Employment Appeals Tribunal service and was replaced by a WRC Adjudication in the Workplace Relations Commission.

The Workplace Relations Commission Complaint Form

The starting point for your claim is the WRC complaint form. (You can access the form on this page.)

If you have a complaint about an employment or equality right, or have a grievance under industrial relations legislation you must use the Workplace Relations Commission Complaint Form. (I have previously written an article about how to bring a complaint to the Workplace Relations Commission).

The complaint must be made within 6 months of the breach of your right, although the Workplace Relations Commission Adjudicator can extend this time to 12 months where there is reasonable cause shown for the delay. What is reasonable cause will be decided by the Adjudicator.

The WRC will copy all correspondence between the parties who are called the “complainant” and “respondent”. The WRC have a mediation service which will be offered to the parties in suitable cases.

This may simply involve a phone call from the WRC to the parties to see if they can broker a deal between the parties. If the mediator/WRC employee is unsuccessful the case will go ahead for adjudication.

Statements from the Complainant

In a claim for constructive dismissal, or an equality based claim, the complainant must submit a clear statement setting out the details of the complaint.

In all other unfair dismissal cases the respondent is obliged to provide a clear statement within 21 days of the request from WRC.

If this procedure is not complied with the hearing will still go ahead but the adjudication officer may draw an inference(s) from the failure.

In an employment equality case the complainant must set out in detail the facts from which discrimination can be shown or inferred.

In a constructive dismissal case the complainant should set out as much detail as possible on the WRC complaint form, including any grievances raised, investigations carried out etc.

In other unfair dismissal cases the respondent must set out in his statement the facts leading to the dismissal, including any disciplinary hearings, appeals, legal points etc.

Other Employment and Equality Cases

If a respondent intends relying on statutory records in his defence these should be sent to the WRC prior to the hearing. Any other points the respondent wishes to make-for example in relation to a legal point or the wrong employer being named-should be raised within 21 days of receipt of the complaint from the WRC.

WRC Hearing

Both parties will then be contacted with a date for the hearing, and asked to advise of any special requirements they have, for example, an interpreter. A postponement will only be given in exceptional circumstances, and the request must be made in writing to the WRC with an explanation. Consent of the other party would be useful, too.

It is up to the parties to ensure that the WRC has all relevant documentation prior to the hearing and that witnesses, if any, are available for the day.

Conduct of the Hearing

My experience of the way the hearing is held is that it can vary, depending on the particular WRC adjudicator.

Nevertheless, the adjudicator will indicate how he/she wants to conduct it and he/she will

  • Ask questions of any party or witness
  • Allow each party to question the other party and any witness
  • Ensure fair procedures and natural justice

The WRC hearing is in private, so is not open to the public or media.

The written decision is supposed to issue within 28 days of the hearing with the parties and witnesses anonymised.

Update August, 2017

The WRC have issued, at the end of August, 2017, updated guidelines about the conduct of WRC hearings.

You can read these guidelines here.

Appeal and Enforcement

The decision can be appealed within 42 days to the Labour Court and the decision can be enforced through the District Court after 42 days if no appeal is lodged.

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2 Surprising Employment Hearing Stories That Should Make You Think Twice About Representation

employment-hearing-representation

Stunned.

I was absolutely flummoxed.

I couldn’t believe my luck.

It was the morning of an EAT hearing and I was there early to speak to my client. My client was the employer and the claim against him was brought by a former employee for constructive dismissal.

Constructive dismissal is a difficult case to win. But on this occasion I was worried because the circumstances which led to the employee walking out and quitting the job did not reflect well on my client.

Far from it.

In fact, I was convinced the employee would receive a great degree of sympathy from the EAT, and would probably win his case.

I had explained this to the client, and suggested settling the case would be a good course of action to embark upon, if we got the chance.

I had told him to bring the cheque book, too, and he was ready to settle it.

We had a figure in mind, and it was correctly based on the financial loss incurred by the employee since leaving the job. He had managed to find a new job but he still had 6 months’ or so of unemployment, and if he was successful this was what he would win, at the very least.

In calculating his financial loss, to which he would be entitled, you disregard any social welfare he would have received during the time out of work.

So, if the lad was on €600 per week and he was out of work for 6 months (26 weeks) his financial loss would be approximately €15,600. (See financial loss calculation in unfair dismissal cases)

Our settlement offer figure was based on this calculation.

I approached the other side and approached the legal professional representing the employee. After introducing myself and exchanging pleasantries I asked him what his client’s loss was, knowing full well what it was, and what his client would take.

I was amazed at the reply, and struggled to keep a straight face. He estimated the loss at around €10,000.

I asked him how he calculated that figure.

He replied that his client had received approximately €5,200 from the Department of Social Protection, and he subtracted this figure from €15,600 and arrived at the €10,000 figure.

I said I would speak to my client, and see could he stretch to this.

Naturally my client was delighted because we had just saved approximately €5,000, and settled the case in about 5 minutes flat. It was a stroke of good luck for my client, because he was ready to pay €15,000.

Unfortunately for the employee his representative made a costly mistake in calculating his financial loss. I can only presume that the representative did not do much employment law in his daily work.

 

Some months later I was involved in another case-this time at the WRC (Workplace Relations Commission)-and acting for the employer again. On the other side were the employee and her solicitor.

The employee had a number of complaints against my client, her former employer.

I instructed counsel in this case and we were fully prepared to fight the case and each and every claim in the complaint. However, we also had a preliminary argument before the hearing commenced at all.

This was that the complaint was made outside the 6 months’ time limit provided, and therefore the WRC adjudicator simply did not have jurisdiction to hear the case.

When the Adjudicator walked in to deal with the case he said he had a few questions to ask of the complainant and her solicitor.

He immediately honed in on the time limit question and decided, without any submission from our side, that he simply did not have jurisdiction to hear the claim as it was out of time.

That was it. It was over, and the case was thrown out in a matter of a minute.

 

Conclusion

You have a number of choices when it comes to bringing a claim to the Workplace Relations Commission (WRC).

You can run the case yourself, or you can get a HR person to represent you.

Or you can get a solicitor, or a solicitor who does quite a bit of employment law.